Volume 5 Part III.


Eric Grenville Drake Collection - Sample ACS - Stagnant ditch near Old Mill, Salisbury (Wednesday 18th September 1968) ©Steve Edgar 2013


Editorial 

The editors have been rather busy of late with various projects and hence the issue of a new number has been delayed considerably.
Material for publication is hard to come by so anyone wishing to add their 'two-penneth' is more than welcome to submit something.
One of the projects that has occupied one of the editors for a considerable time is Horace Barber's 'Account of the Diatom Flora of Nuneaton and some Outlying Districts'. This project is now complete and a brief summary of the end product appears below.
The account of Diatom Locomotion is a revelation and we can't understand why this approach hasn't been mooted previously.
We continue to get complimentary emails in regard to our efforts and these we appreciate greatly (modesty forbids the publishing of these). However, if you don't like something or want to point out the error of our ways then please do so. We would also particularly like to hear from anyone experimenting with 'staining' of diatom frustules to increase contrast and, perhaps, thereby eliminating the need for high R.I. mountants. This is a call to all you chemists out there - there must be something that will bond to/stain silica!

Go to Top of Page
New Download 



This volume is a transcription of the work and plates of Horace Barber in relation to collections made around his home town. It includes numerous plates and additional sketches as well as notes by himself and additions by John Carter.
It is not a taxonomic guide to diatoms but amply illustrates the mechanisms and thought processes of this enthusiastic and capable amateur diatomist.

The volume above is now available in the Downloads section of this site.

Review.
British diatomists may well be familiar with the work of Horace Barber, since his excellent drawings are the mainstay of two important publications for those wanting to identify diatoms here in the UK. One is the short but very useful ‘A guide to the morphology of the diatom frustule’ first published by FBA in 1981 which includes a key. The other is the very comprehensive ‘An Atlas of British Diatoms’ published by Biopress in 1996. The simplicity but excellence of the illustrations is evidence of the artistry of Barber, but very few of us have much of an insight into the life of the man. The publication under review does just that. Principally, it is a transcription of a document that Barber wrote over a period of time, detailing the diatom flora of the Nuneaton area where he lived.
The original text of Barber has been transcribed, and the plates scanned and included in the A4 size pdf document at a very generous size. I have the advantage over most readers in having had a view of the originals, and it is quite evident that the scanning process and associated software has been used to good effect to enhance the plates, often improving the contrast and overall clarity.
Another enhancement is the inclusion of full details of the locations mentioned, with Northings and Eastings given in addition to site photographs. For those able, it means that these sites can be visited and sampled, which is a bonus, albeit that some are now garden centres or parts of the M42!. This up to date information is added as editor's notes. A useful map shows each site in relation to the others.
Each plate is accompanied by the transcribed text of Barber, with additional notes as needed. This includes size ranges and locations. Their usefulness is increased by the indexing of this and the ability to easily search for particular species.The plates themselves are very good, which many will know as the hallmark of Barber. He certainly had great skill in depicting what are quite complicated features, giving a sense with many that less is more. Birdwatchers use the term ‘jizz’ to encapsulate the essence of a bird, and in a similar way the plates of Barber do this for diatoms.
The appendices contain much useful content. The first is a set of species lists for each locality, with plate numbers that depict them. Similarly, the next appendix is an alphabetical list of diatom species. There is also some additional information about the life of the man, with some further examples of his artistry, including watercolours, oils and pottery. A full bibliography and a glossary of terms complete the work.
All in all, this is a fine production of the work of a great expert, and we are lucky that it has been made available by those left behind, and certainly by the efforts of the editor in putting it in our hands so easily. Heartily recommended.
Mike Samworth

Go to Top of Page
Dr. LeGear's Worm Powders 
Uses of Diatomite

The subject in this issue is Dr. LeGear's Poultry Powders.
The Dr. L. D. LeGear Medicine Co. produced a range of Veterinary medicines in the early years of the last century, and indeed continued in one guise or another up until the present day.



The powders of interest to diatomists are the worm (and lice) powders that contain diatomaceous earth. The earth in these case was undoubtedly calcined and milled, but to what degree in the early samples is unknown.



Louis D. LeGear was born circa 1869 in Canada and graduated from Ontario Veterinary College in 1892. His brother Newton G. LeGear graduated from the same institution in 1896.
Many advertisements for the products of the company appeared in the press in the period after the First World War.


Pacific Rural Press, Volume XCVIII, Number 12, 20 September 1919

Flyers listed many of their products...



...and a slightly risqué card exists but it is thought that this was produced by a third party intermediary wholesaler. (You have to guess at what's behind the masking paper!)



Worm powders containing 'food grade' diatomaceous earth are still widely on sale.

Go to Top of Page
Old Papers Revisited - Cleaning Diatoms 

Extracted from Transactions of the American Microscopical Society Vol. 32, No. 1, Jan., 1913



This is an interesting 'take' on sieving diatoms. It is not a procedure that any of the editors have experimented with as we have a set of wire-mesh and nylon-mesh sieves.

Go to Top of Page
Oamaru (Section A - Locations)
A collecton of notes from Steve Gill
Oamaru, Otago Province, New Zealand

Def: Oamaru:

O=food (especially sacred); a=of; Maru, a war-deity of the Maoris. Sacred food set apart as an offering to the god Maru. Should not be pronounced “Ommaroo,” as is the common way, but each vowel should be given its full value. (def: 1936). Also The place of Maru (def: 1966). Also “O” – the, and “Amaru” – the tree.

Def: Otago:

Otago is generally accepted as being a corruption of the Maori “O-Takou”, which means “the red earth” (ochre) referring to the red clay used by the Maoris to paint their houses and canoes.

To diatomists the name Oamaru conjures up visions of a series of farmsteads and hills, riven by gullies and creeks with the odd farm dwelling in a landscape otherwise devoid of human influence. Oamaru is, and was, during the years of diatomite (diatomaceous earth [DE is the abbreviation used in industry]) discovery, a township and no diatomite is actually known from there. The diatomite outcroppings all occur in the hinterland, where the above description is appropriate, but they are now closer to smaller conurbations than to Oamaru itself. However, in the early days of the collectors the only major settlement in the vicinity was Oamaru.

The entire document comprises three sections:

A. Sites/Locations
B. Landowners/Source Names
C. Diatomists and Diatomite Collectors

Each deals (or attempts to deal) with the specific categories. However, there is substantial crossover between sections where references to sites and locations include names of individuals (landowners, diatomists and collectors), references to landowners by virtue of the site name being named for them has links to the sites section and lastly diatomists and collectors may be linked with any elements of the other sections.

This is a working document reflecting the current state of my research notes.

Section A: LOCATIONS.


From “The Diatoms of New Zealand by Vida Annette Latham (c1944)”
published as Diatom Notes No. 9. by The State Microscopical Society of Illinois.

Topographical details of some of these are given by Doig (1962, 1967)
Stratigraphical details in The Oamaru Ditomite by Edwards (1991)
The year in braces { } are the records noticed for the location. (excluding later 20th /21st Century references)

It is probable that the locations described as ‘synonymous with’ are, in reality, discreet collecting points within a specific area, or in some cases the same collection location whose description is based on land ownership where such ownership has changed over time.

1. Allan's Farm, Oamaru {1888 – Lautour, 1915 - Diatomees du Monde Entier - Tempere et Peragallo, Meakin Collection – Sample 1202}

Now in the possession of Bob and Nancy Allan
Deposit located in the middle of a sheep field approximately 3 minutes walk from the house.
In 1888 in the possession of H. Allan.
45° 5' 57.99" S  170° 53' 58.82" E 

1a. Allen’s Farm (Synonymous with Allan’s Farm) {1888 - Latour}

Alternative spelling

1b. Allan’s Rock {Meakin Collection – Sample 1363}

Name found on sample tubes (469, 471, 472, 476) in the Schulze Collection
A number of distinct beds of diatomaceous earth have been identified in the stratigraphic column (Doig, 1967).
The bed has been allocated a ‘zone’ based on the predominant genus found in the bed.
The table below (from Doig, 1967) enumerates the beds, as known at that juncture. (see notes on Arthur John Doig in Section C).

Location Name:  Allan’s Farm

Acronym/Bed

Old Name

Zone

Notes

AF/1

-

Stephanopyxis

AF/3

Allan’s

Stephanopyxis

2. Atkinson’s (Farm) {1888 - Lautour}

Possibly the same as Cave Valley – Atkinson’s Road ran along this feature (now renamed Cormacks Road)
De Lautour’s map (1888) shows Atkinsons as being on the opposite side of the road from Cormacks and at approximately the same distance west of Weston. The location may not have been Cave Valley as such but a northern continuation of the exposure at Allan’s.

3. Bain’s (Farm) {1887 – Hutton, 1888 – Lautour, 1889 - Tempere et Peragallo, Edwards 1960}

Records also exist relating to Bain’s Top (is this synonymous with Bain’s Upper?)

            3a. Bain’s Upper

Described by Lautour (1888) as Calcareous Diatomaceous ooze. Similar to Jackson’s.

            3b. Bain’s Middle

Described by Lautour (1888) as Non-calcareous Diatomaceous ooze. Similar to Cormack’s.

            3c. Bain’s Lower {L. D. Coombs, Meakin Collection – Sample 447, 1365}

Described by Lautour (1888) as Non-calcareous Diatomaceous ooze. Similar to Cormack’s.
Records also exist referring to Bain’s Totara.
Arthur J. Doig also collected from somewhere called Bain’s Totara - 45° 07' S, 170° 56' E which is south-west of Oamaru and not near Bain’s at all!
Totara sample collected by W.F. Reeve circa 1950 - 45° 07' S, 170° 56' E which is the same location as Arthur J. Doig’s Bain’s Totara sample!
Are these co-ordinates simply ‘rounded’ figures as there are no seconds recorded.
As there are so many ‘Totara’ location’s “Bain’s Totara” is believed to be a way of confirming the site location.


Lautour (1888)

45° 6' 4.56" S  170° 53' 15.06" E   This location appears to be a thick band.
A number of distinct beds of diatomaceous earth have been identified in the stratigraphic column (Doig, 1967).
The bed has been allocated a ‘zone’ based on the predominant genus found in the bed.
The table below (from Doig, 1967) enumerates the beds, as known at that juncture. (see notes on Arthur John Doig in Section C).

Location Name:  Bain’s and Totatra

Locality No.

Old Name

Beds Exposed (1967)

Notes

1

-

BN/1-BN/7

Middle part of northern step (Grid Ref. 474:660)

2

-

BN/6-BN/7

North end of Western step (Grid Ref. 472:659)

3

Bain’s

BN/6-BN/9

Middle part of Western step (Grid Ref. 472:657)

4

Totara

BN/4-BN/5

Southern end of flat area between the three steps (Grid Ref. 475:656)

Acronym/Bed(Locality)

Old Name

Zone

Notes

BN/3(1)

-

Stephanopyxis

BN/5(4)

Totara

Stephanopyxis

BN/7(1)

-

Stephanopyxis

BN/7(3)

Bain’s Upper Deposits

Stephanopyxis

BN/9(3)

Bain’s Lower Deposit

Stephanopyxis

4. Big Flume Creek (Synonymous with Borrie’s [Farm], Flume Creek, Flume Gully, Frew’s [Gully],

Hurst’s [Farm], Papakaio)

5. Bill’s Bluff (Synonymous with William’s Bluff) {Arthur J. Doig}

6. Borries (Synonymous with Big Flume Creek, Borrie’s [Farm], Flume Creek, Flume Gully,

Frew’s [Gully], Hurst’s [Farm], Papakaio) {1889 – Tempere et Peragallo, Meakin Collection – Sample 462 (ex-Tempere), 463 (ex-Tempere)}


North Otago Times, Volume XXXVII, Issue 8278, 5 September 1895

7. Breen’s (Farm) (Synonymous with Old Stone Quarry and Capsize Stone Quarry)

100 yds south of Old Stone Quarry
Doig (1967) includes this location in the Capsize Stone Quarry deposit.

8. Capsize Stone Quarry (Synonymous with Breen’s Farm and Old Stone Quarry) {1918 – Park}

8a. Capsize Quarry

8b. Cape Size {CAS Diatom Collection Acc. No. 612443 - York T. Mandra}

Should be Capsize Quarry
A number of distinct beds of diatomaceous earth have been identified in the stratigraphic column (Doig, 1967).
The bed has been allocated a ‘zone’ based on the predominant genus found in the bed.
The table below (from Doig, 1967) enumerates the beds, as known at that juncture. (see notes on Arthur John Doig in Section C).

Location Name:  Capsize Stone Quarry

Acronym/Bed

Old Name

Zone

Notes

CQ/2

Old Stone Quarry

Coscinodiscus

CQ/4

Breen’s

Coscinodiscus

9. Cave Valley (possibly the same as Cormack’s) {1874 – H. R. Webb, 1886, 1888 - Lautour}

Possibly referring to THE WAIAREKA VALLEY

“I have been intrigued at the use of the word “Te Ana raki” by members of the Preservation Society since the commencement of the initial hearings process. From my research, the words Te Ana raki pertains to no more than a large piece of limestone rock broken from the cliff at the top of the hill at the western end near Enfield. The rock itself was situated at the bottom of the hill at the junction with Coal Pit Road and contained a dry cave in which early travellers sheltered. Thus Te Ana raki means “dry cave”. Eventually it was sawn into limestone blocks and used for the construction of the Windsor Park Homestead and so now no longer exists.

“Cave Valley” is referenced many times as the site of numerous houses and also of Anderson’s Quarry.


North Otago Times, Volume XXIII, Issue 6630, 1 May 1888
Otago Daily Times , Issue 8184, 16 May 1888


1861 Topographical Sketch of Oamaru District (LINZ, Dunedin) [Part of S.O. 1302]
Showing the Cave Valley (Waiareka Valley).

10. Cormack’s (Cormacks) {Meakin Collection – Sample 735 S.W. Corner, 1153, 1154}

From - Wises Index to Every Place in NZ, 1912

CORMACK'S, Otago. A railway siding five miles from Oamaru, one mile from Weston. On the Oamaru-Tokarahi line. Weston is the nearest post office. Named after a paymaster on the railway. Farming district.

This is possibly one John Cormack who was in the employ of Messrs. M. D. Morrison and Co. who were railway line contractors - circa 1876.

10a. Cormack’s Crossing {Arthur J. Doig}


North Otago Times, Volume XXVI, Issue 1871, 25 April 1878


North Otago Times, Volume XXVIII, Issue 2241, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9 July 1879

10b. Cormack’s Extension {1877 – McKay}

10c. Cormack’s Farm

See advertisements below for Cormack’s Siding

10d. Cormack’s Siding(s) {1874 – H. R. Webb, 1877 – McKay, 1888 – Forrester, Meakin Collection – Sample 478 (ex-H.R.S.Williams, 852, 1368}


North Otago Times, Volume XXXV, Issue 7230, 2 September 1891


North Otago Times, Volume XXVI, Issue 9753, 4 May 1900

A rail line – now removed and all evidence of diatomite outcroppings obliterated.

The Weston operations were formerly operated by Taylor's Limeworks, a subsidiary of Holcim. Taylor's Limeworks consolidated their operations at Makareao (Dunback) in 1990 with the opening of a new plant there. The limeworks at Weston were then sold to Parkside Quarries Ltd, who continue to mine lime and Oamaru stone at two sites. If the Weston Cement Works development goes ahead, new lime/tuff quarries will be established at the western edge of Parkside's operations. The cement works will be on land immediately west of the old Taylor's works at Cormacks”

See also Taylor’s Quarry below.

From southward-facing points at Waiareka Junction (placed thus to eliminate an impossibly sharp and steep curve had they faced Oamaru-wards) the line proceeds for barely two miles on a climb of 1 in 111 to Weston. Weston, known for its Oamaru stone quarry, could be called a 'dormitory area' with respect to Oamaru. The present terminus of the line (since 1959) is at Cormacks the site of Taylors' Lime Works. The original Cormacks loop was situated 300 yards on the Weston side of the present station. This loop was removed in 1944. Taylors' works have recently been taken over by Milburn Lime and Cement and so the future of the business seems secure. This opinion is based on a recent statement by Milburn Lime and Cement (1961) that they intend to eventually base most of their plant and operations at Cormacks where there are unlimited reserves of high-grade limestone.”

Cormack's Siding diatom type locality

Cormack's Siding was a low cutting and earth platform used for loading stock onto a now-disused railway line in North Otago. The locality was right next to a main road and the cutting provided a readily accessible source of fresh late Eocene Oamaru Diatomite Edwards, 1991. In the heydays of amateur diatomists in the late 19th century many samples of diatomite from this locality were sent around the world as exchange samples. As a result Cormack's Siding became the type locality for over 13 species of archaeomonads and 108 species of diatom (Edwards, 1991), and was therefore a site of international importance.

The site was not regularly visited by geologists, and unfortunately before it could be added to the local District Scheme schedule it was bulldozed away and completely destroyed during road widening in 2000."

(Note: Rumour has it that the line will be re-opened sometime in the near future)

New Zealand Place Names Database:
Place Name Detail: Cormacks
District: Otago
Description: LOCALITY: Defined area of low or nil population
Lat: -45.0797
Long: 170.8952
NZMG Easting: 2344235.1
NZMG Northing: 5567847
NZMS 260 sheet: J41

Referred to as “Cormacks Siding, Cave Valley” by Harry de Lautour in 1888 (On the Fossil Marine Diatomaceous Deposit near Oamaru – Read before the Otago Institute 12th June 1888)


Lautour (1888)

10e. Cormack’s Top {1877 – McKay, 1915 - Diatomees du Monde Entier - Tempere et Peragallo}

11. Daniel’s….? (Cormack’s?)

12. Devil’s Bridge (Synonymous with Mavor’s)

On Mavor’s farm


Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand
Art. VIII.—Geology of the Oamara-Papakaio District.
By G. H. Uttley, M.A., M.Sc., F.G.S., Principal, Scots College, Wellington.
[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 19th September, 1917,
 received by Editors, 31st December, 1917; issued separately, 24th May, 1918.]

Prior to ownership by Mavor was it in the hands of James Garrow – as per the cutting below.


North Otago Times, Volume XXXVII, Issue 8278, 5 September 1895

13. Dick’s Farm

14. Division Hill

New Zealand Place Names Database:
Place Name Detail: Division Hill
District: Otago
Description: HILL: A natural elevation of the Earth's surface
Lat: -45.0316
Long: 170.9304
NZMG Easting: 2346874.1
NZMG Northing: 5573256
NZMS 260 sheet: J41

45° 1' 36.36" S  170° 55' 15.30" E 

A number of distinct beds of diatomaceous earth have been identified in the stratigraphic column (Doig, 1967).
The bed has been allocated a ‘zone’ based on the predominant genus found in the bed.
The table below (from Doig, 1967) enumerates the beds, as known at that juncture. (see notes on Arthur John Doig in Section C).

Location Name:  Division Hill

Acronym/Bed

Old Name

Zone

Notes

DH/1

-

Coscinodiscus

DH/3

-

Coscinodiscus

DH/5

-

Coscinodiscus

15. Flaws Creek (East Oamaru)

I haven’t been able to locate this site. Could this be a misspelling of Frew’s?

16. Flume Creek (Synonymous with Big Flume Creek, Borrie’s [Farm], Flume Gully, Frew’s [Gully],

Hurst’s [Farm], Papakaio) {1889 – Tempere et Peragallo}


Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand
Art. VIII.—Geology of the Oamara-Papakaio District.
By G. H. Uttley, M.A., M.Sc., F.G.S., Principal, Scots College, Wellington.
[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 19th September, 1917, received by Editors, 31st December, 1917; issued separately, 24th May, 1918.]

17. Flume Gully (Synonymous with Big Flume Creek, Borrie’s [Farm], Flume Creek, Frew’s [Gully],

Hurst’s [Farm], Papakaio)
Named after the wooden flume that once carried the Oamaru water supply (now replaced)
Entrance lies close to main highway almost a mile SE of Papakaio township according to Y. T. Mandra.


Tuapeka Times, Volume III, Issue 121, 2 June 1870


Tuapeka Times, Volume XII, Issue 600, 24 January 1880

A number of distinct beds of diatomaceous earth have been identified in the stratigraphic column (Doig, 1967).
The bed has been allocated a ‘zone’ based on the predominant genus found in the bed.
The table below (from Doig, 1967) enumerates the beds, as known at that juncture. (see notes on Arthur John Doig in Section C). The ‘Old Name’ in this table doesn’t help with samples labelled Big Flume Creek, Borrie’s [Farm], Flume Creek, Frew’s [Gully], Hurst’s [Farm], Papakaio.

Location Name:  Flume Gully

Acronym/Bed (Bank)

Old Name

Zone

Notes

PP/3 (N)

-

a. cosmopolitan

b. Stephanopyxis

Bed split by narrow band of tuff. Might be regarded as two bands a. b.

PP/6 (N)

-

t. Melosira

b. Coscinodiscus

Single band but with different populations top and bottom t. b.

PP/8 (N)

Upper Papakaio

Coscinodiscus

PP/10 (N)

-

Stephanopyxis

Possibly previously labelled Lower Papakaio but in fact a different bed.

PP/12 (N)

Lower Papakaio

Stephanopyxis

PP/12 (S)

South Bank Upper Deposit

Stephanopyxis

PP/15 (S)

-

Stephanopyxis

Possibly previously labelled South Bank Lower Deposit but is in fact not conjoined.

PP/17 (S)

South Bank Lower Deposit

Stephanopyxis

18. Forrester's

Forrester’s Hill often abbreviated to Forrester’s.

18a. Forrester’s Hill, Oamaru {Meakin Collection – Sample 1190, 1191, 1193, 1194, 1195}

2 or 3 bands of diatomite running across the hill.

"Thomas Forrester (1838 – 1907)
Before emigrating with his family to New Zealand in 1861, Forrester had attended the Glasgow Government School of Design in Scotland.  There his studies ranged from map drawing to draughting – skills which set this humble man on a lifetime of achievement.
Following his employment by the Dunedin architect, R A Lawson in 1869 he was sent to Oamaru to supervise the building of the Bank of Otago, which today houses the town’s public art gallery- The Forrester.
Thus began a long and fruitful association with the town. Within a few short years of his arrival Forrester was directing his considerable design and engineering talents towards the Oamaru Harbour.  Beginning as inspector of works he was appointed secretary of the Harbour Board and later engineer. From samples he had taken of the harbour floor he saw the seabed could be dredged. This led to the creation of a deepwater anchorage allowing large ships loaded with North Otago's bounty to come and go in safety.
While still in full time employment with the Harbour Board, for almost three decades from 1872 and in partnership with John Lemon, Forrester designed an impressive portfolio of ornately decorated buildings and family homes, contributing more than any other person to the distinctive architecture of Oamaru.  Thomas Forrester brought the architectural and design skills to the partnership and John Lemon supervised construction and saw to the day to day running of the practice.
In 1882 Forrester was appointed first curator of the newly established Oamaru Museum (now the North Otago Museum). The museum was located in the Athenaeum, a building he had designed.   There he pursued his other interests in geology and photography."

Also

"Thomas Forrester was born in Glasgow, Scotland, probably on 16 May 1838, the son of Janet Watt and her husband, George Forrester, a modelling and decorative plasterer. Thomas attended the Glasgow Government School of Art, where his studies ranged from map drawing to the draughting of plans. Meanwhile, he learned from his father how to ornament the interiors of buildings, and like him became a plasterer. On 5 July 1860 at Glasgow, Thomas Forrester married Elizabeth Megget, a dressmaker. The following year Thomas and Elizabeth and the first of their four children travelled to New Zealand as assisted emigrants, arriving in Port Chalmers, Otago, on the Pladda on 8 September 1861. Thomas Forrester's parents accompanied them to New Zealand.
During his first years in the colony, Forrester was called on to use the full range of his artistic talents. Initially he is said to have worked as a plastering contractor in Dunedin. In 1865 he drew for James Hector the first geological survey map of New Zealand. The same year the architect William Mason designed the structure for the Dunedin-based New Zealand Exhibition. Forrester, who had worked as a draughtsman to Mason and his partner W. H. Clayton, was superintendent of the building where displays were shown.
After working for Mason and Clayton, Forrester was employed by the architect R. A. Lawson. In early years Oamaru limestone was much favoured as a building material, large blocks being available 'of the same tint and consistency' so that 'whole cities might be built in which one stone could not be distinguished from another'. Mason had used the easily worked material for the magnificent, ill-fated Dunedin post office, completed in 1868; a more secure edifice was Lawson's limestone-veneered First Church of Otago, begun the same year. Thus in 1869, when Forrester was sent to Oamaru as supervising architect for Lawson's Bank of Otago building (later the National Bank of New Zealand offices), he well knew the material with which he was working.
His assignment completed, Forrester settled with his family at Oamaru. He soon began a lifelong connection with the local harbour authority as inspector of works, secretary and, later, engineer. He established that the seafloor could be dredged, and that a notoriously uncertain open roadstead could be transformed into an enclosed deep-water harbour. About 1872 he and John Lemon formed an architectural partnership: Forrester was part-time designer of buildings, while Lemon, with his well-established contacts among the local élite, was full-time business manager.
Occasionally the practice took on contracts outside North Otago. After the abolition of the provincial system and establishment of a multitude of counties in 1876, the Waimate County Council commissioned Forrester to design council chambers and a hospital. The brick and stucco chambers, among the first in New Zealand, had spacious and comfortable debating facilities. The hospital plans were considered more suited to 'a place of affluence than…charity', and the completed brick building was later criticised as a memento of a time when local bodies had more money than they could usefully spend.
In Oamaru, by contrast, it was thought that structures should be imposing and that a utilitarian function should be concealed behind an ornamental facade. Forrester, deferring to local expectation, created on Harbour Street an uninterrupted sequence of grand buildings constructed in Oamaru stone in which grain was stored before being moved to the nearby port. In neighbouring Tyne Street, the town's original business heart, there arose richly ornamented hotels, the squat Custom House, and J. & T. Meek's Elevator, a five-storey grain store. For Thames Street, which became Oamaru's main artery, Forrester planned a court house which, with its classical design, emphatic temple-front portico and restrained facade, was the pride of the district when completed in 1883. Also in Thames Street was the large, decorated post office finished in 1884; it was for years a favourite with postcard, calendar and crockery illustrators. The freezing works, which took sheep from the nearby Totara estate, was completed in 1886. Beyond municipal boundaries, the partners designed the original Waitaki Boys' High School building with its picturesque silhouette.
When John Lemon died in 1890, Thomas Forrester retired from the business to make way for his only surviving child, John Megget Forrester. Thereafter he pursued his interests in geology and photography. With Dr H. A. de Lautour he did microscopic work of scientific value on the diatomaceous deposits of the Oamaru district. Forrester continued to focus much of his attention on harbour improvements. He designed the Holmes wharf which allowed large ocean-going vessels to call at Oamaru. A festive crowd greeted the 6,237-ton Waiwera in June 1907. Sadly, Forrester did not live to witness this occasion, having died in Oamaru on 25 March 1907, survived by his wife and son.
In colonial New Zealand a man who had not been articled to an architect might still break into the profession. Forrester was one such man, progressing from plasterer, to draughtsman in the employ of Dunedin architects, to independent practitioner in Oamaru. Local dignitaries, encouraged by the illusory prosperity of the Vogel years, insisted that the churches, schools, warehouses, factories and private houses of their town be of a high architectural standard. Forrester obliged. Working with local limestone, he erected handsome buildings, many of which still stand, monuments to his skill and to North Otago pride."

Also

Arrivals September 7 1861. Pladda, 982 tons, Dunlop, from Glasgow.
Arrival of the "Pladda"
This fine vessel, which has made very good passage from the "bonnie banks o' Clyde," to this port. arrived here on Sunday, the 8th inst., and was towed up to Port Chalmers by the "Prince Albert." The "Pladda" has brought from the home country an addition to our population of 369 immigrants, who appear to be on the whole a clean and healthy class of people, and have arrived in good time to obtain situations, or, if they prefer it, to try their luck at our newly-discovered gold fields, but we learn that many have considered it more advisable, in meantime, to engage themselves to farm service, or take employment in town, until they see how matters are likely to go.
The "Pladda" left the tail of the bank on the 1st June, and had favourable winds and weather until she reached the latitude of Madeira. Was becalmed for a short time at the Line, after which a breeze spring up, which enabled her to proceed on her voyage. Several vessels were spoken at sea - one homeward bound, by which letters were sent out. The Pladda arrived here on the 7th inst., having accomplished the passage here on the 7th inst., having accomplished the passage from land to land in 98 days. The weather during the voyage was on the whole very fine, and the passengers all agreeable. Upwards of 10 was collected from passengers on board, on behalf of an infant whose mother died. A bazaar for the benefit of the Seaman's Society, was held, which was well attended.

On the arrival of the "Pladda," the following address signed by nearly 150 passengers, was presented to Captain Dunlop - a circumstance highly gratifying, as showing by their testimony how much his kindness and attention has been appreciated....

The following is a list of the passenger by the above vessel:

Forrester, George and wife (Thomas Forrester's parents)
Forrester, Thomas, wife (nee Elizabeth Megget) and infant
 

In the Journal of the Quekett Microscopical Club May 25th 1888 Ordinary Meeting:

The Secretary said he had a matter of interest to mention for the benefit of those who were interested in the study of the Diatomaceae. Some time ago Mr. Forrester, of the Oamaru Harbour Board, New Zealand, promised to send over some diatomaceous earth for distribution amongst the members. Since then a parcel had arrived from him containing two samples of the deposit, one from Jackson's Paddock and the other from Cormack's Siding.
He had brought with him to the meeting some of each sort, from which Members could supply themselves if desired, and if the quantity brought was found to be insufficient, more could be had if wanted. Mr. Forrester had asked in exchange for any specimens of other deposits which Members might be able to furnish him with. He thought that the thanks of the Club
were due to Mr. Forrester for so kindly affording them the opportunity of examining for themselves specimens of the earths which were upon the table before them.


Wanganui Herald, Volume XXXXI, Issue 12127, 27 March 1907

NZ-BMD Death 1907/4722 Forrester, Thomas, aged 68

45° 1' 43.41" S  170° 54' 22.00" E 
A number of distinct beds of diatomaceous earth have been identified in the stratigraphic column (Doig, 1967).
The bed has been allocated a ‘zone’ based on the predominant genus found in the bed.
The table below (from Doig, 1967) enumerates the beds, as known at that juncture. (see notes on Arthur John Doig in Section C).

Location Name:  Forrester’s Hill

Acronym/Bed

Old Name (Doig 1962)

Zone

Notes

FH/1

Worthless Seam

No diatoms

FH/2

-

Coscinodiscus

FH/4

Seam a-a

Coscinodiscus

FH/5

Seam b-b

Coscinodiscus

18b. Forrester's Rock (Synonymous with Forrester’s Hill) {1915 - Diatomees du Monde Entier - Tempere et Peragallo, Meakin Collection – Sample 490 (ex-Tempere)}

The original sample was named Forrester’s Rock. – or since this wasn’t found could this be Totara – although it is at the other end of the formation?

19. Fortification Hill – is this a diatomite or limestone formation?

Probably the quarry mentioned in the newspaper cutting below.
 
There were/are a number of locations called by this name and reference to collecting notes would be need to sort this out.
Possibly in New Zealand Place Names Database (though this seems somewhat off the mark)
Fortification Hill
District: Otago
Description: HILL: A natural elevation of the Earth's surface
Lat: -44.8959
Long: 170.6452
NZMG Easting: 2323985.7
NZMG Northing: 5587736.9
NZMS 260 sheet: I41


Otago Daily Times , Issue 1032, 11 April 1865
Otago Witness , Issue 698, 15 April 1865


North Otago Times, Volume XXVIII, Issue 2878, 20 September 1881


North Otago Times, Volume XXVIII, Issue 3686, 27 June 1884

The following cutting refers either to a Fortification Hill between Oamaru and the Totara Estate to the South West, or Oamaru and the location of the Totara boulder. The location of Sebastopol Hill and Alma Heights here is crucial to this identification. Alma Heights is to the south west of Oamaru.


Otago Witness , Issue 2764, 6 March 1907

20. Foulden Hills, Otago

Foulden Hills Diatomite, not far from Dunedin, New Zealand.
Almost 30 miles south south west of Oamaru
Actually near Middlemarch – so probably freshwater lake deposit - S:45°32'1'' E:170°13'4''

21. Frew’s (Gully) (possibly synonymous with Big Flume Creek, Borrie’s [Farm], Flume Creek, Flume Gully, Frew’s [Gully], Hurst’s [Farm], Papakaio){1889 – Tempere et Peragallo}

Named for the owner of the adjacent property.
Not sure that this gully is synonymous with those locations stated above.


North Otago Times, Volume 1794, Issue XXVI, 23 January 1878


North Otago Times, Volume 2059, Issue XXVII, 6 December 1878


North Otago Times, Volume XXVIII, Issue 2183, 2 May 1879

22. Hurst’s (Farm) (Synonymous with Big Flume Creek, Borrie’s [Farm], Flume Creek, Flume Gully, Frew’s [Gully], Papakaio and possibly Kent Knole) {1889 – Tempere et Peragallo}

23. Jackson’s {1888 – Lautour, Meakin Collection – Sample 1227, 1362, 1379}

This is referred to by Harry de Lautour in 1888 (On the Fossil Marine Diatomaceous Deposit near Oamaru – Read before the Otago Institute 12th June 1888) as if different from Jackson’s paddock which is later referred to.)


Lautour (1888)

23a. Jackson’s Farm {Dr. Watt – Brigger Collection bottle 650}

23b. Jackson’s Paddock {188? – Mr. C. Gifford of Waitaki Boys High School, 1888 – Forrester, 1888 – Lautour, 1915 - Diatomees du Monde Entier - Tempere et Peragallo, Meakin Collection – Sample 508-511 (ex-Tempere), 849, 1117}

A steep hillside located east of Springhill Road. Almost the entire hill is diatomite save for the top 20 feet, which is a limestone cap.
Is Jackson’s Farm @ 932-1076 Fortification Road, Cormacks 9495, New Zealand?
A number of distinct beds of diatomaceous earth have been identified in the stratigraphic column (Doig, 1967).
The bed has been allocated a ‘zone’ based on the predominant genus found in the bed.
The table below (from Doig, 1967) enumerates the beds, as known at that juncture. (see notes on Arthur John Doig in Section C).

Location Name:  Jackson’s Paddock

Acronym/Bed

Old Name

Zone

Notes

JP/1

-

Melosira

JP/3

Jackson’s Paddock (Hillside)

Coscinodiscus

JP/5

Jackson’s Paddock (Roadside)

Stephanopyxis

23c. Jackson’s Rock {John A. Schulze Collection – 493}

Name found on a sample tube (493) in the Schulze Collection.

23d. Jackson’s Top {Dr. Watt – Brigger Collection bottles 201, 204, and 205}

23e. Jackson’s Well {Brigger Collection – bottle 32}

24. Kakanui

From - Wises Index to Every Place in NZ, 1912

KAKANUI, Otago. Thirteen miles south from Oamaru and four miles from Maheno railway station. An agricultural settlement on Kakanui River, near coast. Fishing on river, and hare shooting close by. Good roads. One hotel : private board 20s per week. Post and tele­phone office.

 The small town of Kakanui lies on the coast of Otago, in New Zealand, fourteen kilometres to the south of Oamaru.
A fossil/marine site
45° 12' S, 170° 54' E
Is this in the same formation?

25. Kent Knole [Farm?] (Synonymous with Hurst’s Farm and probably Papakaio) {1957 – Gage, 1965 – Turner}

Kent Knole is a placename situated just off the Georgetown-Pukeiri Road (nr. No.721), about 2000 yards to the north-west of Papakaio.
Doig (1967) notes that this location is on the property of Mr. C. Hurst. This being the case some confusion may arise with early samples labelled “Hurst’s” which samples appear to relate to Flume Gully. Doig (1967) proposes the long names “Kent Knole North” and “Kent Knole South” to describe the locations. The ‘North’ deposit is exposed at the bank of the water race and the ‘South’ deposit on the hill behind the homestead.

26. Lorne Escarpment (Synonymous with William’s Bluff, Whitstone Escarpment)

From - Wises Index to Every Place in NZ, 1912

LORNE, Otago. A railway siding six miles from Oamaru, on the Oamaru-Tokarahi line. The township and post office is Whitstone.

An examination of early maps shows it as a nameless hill devoid of any early or pre European reference. Some distance away on the former Meek property is a limestone cliff referred to on maps as Teaneraki Cliff.
For local Enfield residents it was known as Meek’s Hill for three generations because the Meek Farm went to the top. Sometimes it was simply called “The Limestone Hill”.
>For people at Whitstone it was known as Whitstone Hill.
Towards Weston it was known for seventy years as Taylors Hill.
Other long term landowners in the Waiareka valley, farmers and current lessees of the Holcim land refer to the hill as the “Lorne Escarpment”.
Today there is no one common name for the hill on the Holcim land. It does not have a specific identity. It remains unnamed on maps. For those that need to have a name for it, it is what they want to call it. Attempts to mystify its importance by the creation of a so called “common name” are intriguing.”


Part of NZMS 1 S136 (1943)

Lorn Peak @ S:45°20'45'' E:168°47'31'' – has this anything to do with the escarpment?

The Cyclopedia of New Zealand [Otago & Southland Provincial Districts] (1905)

Lorne is in the electorate of Awarua and in the riding of the same name in the county of Southland. The local post office, which is conducted at a store at the corner where the main north road crosses the roads leading to Dacre and Riverton respectively, is five miles from Invercargill by a good road, four miles of which are traversed by the Invercargill and Suburban Tram Company's line. The cross-roads in question are often spoken of as Wallacetown Crossing. The township of Wallacetown is three miles distant, but the railway station of the same name is quite near, and alongside the railway station are the Wallacetown Junction saleyards, where large stock sales are conducted every alternate Tuesday. There is a hotel alongside the railway station, and the Southland Frozen Meat Company's slaughtering and manure works also adjoin the railway. On the main road, not far from the cross-roads, stands Lorne farm, one of the most notable charitable institutions in Southland. As a district Lorne is devoted to agriculture and dairy farming. The district is fairly level though somewhat undulating, and contains some good agricultural and pastoral land.
Lorne Farm is one of the institutions managed by the Southland Hospital and Charitable Aid Board. The establishment was opened on the 29th of June, 1899, as an Old Men's Home, but was enlarged in 1902 by the addition of another wing, to provide accommodation for old women and children. The original building, which was of one storey, contained two bedrooms, and a sitting-room for the men, besides a dining-room, three bathrooms, a storeroom, a kitchen, a scullery, a drying-room and washhouse, and four rooms for the master and matron. The accommodation was sufficient for twenty-three inmates, besides officers and assistants. The new addition is a two-storey brick building, and contains, on the first floor, girls' and boys' bedrooms, each with twenty beds; a female domitory, with six beds; a sick room, with two beds, besides two servants' rooms, and a linen press. On the ground floor there is a nursery, with nine cots, and accommodation for two attendants; separate rooms for the boys and girls; a sewing-room, kitchen and pantry, four bathrooms, the master's office, and the conservatory. There is an asphalt playground with shelter sheds, and other buildings, including an engine-room, pump-house, store-room, chaff-house, carpenter's shop, a loft, and dairy, all in brick. There are also stables, byres, and pigsties. The land, which was originally known as Lorne estate, contains ninety-five acres, five of which are in garden and orchard; the balance is laid down in grass, or is used for cropping as required. In November, 1903, the inmates in the institution numbered sixty-four, including twenty men, three women, twenty-four boys and seventeen girls, the cost of whose maintenance was 4s 10d a head per week. The produce of the farm, besides supplying the requirements of the institution, is a source of revenue to the Board; and the surplus sold during the year which ended in March, 1903, realised £180. The institution is under the care of a master and matron.
Mr. Arthur Cusworth , Master of Lorne Farm, was born near Barnsley, England, in 1852. Mr Cusworth started work at the Barnsley iron works at the age of twelve years, and page 916 was afterwards employed as a gardener. He arrived at Port Chalmers by the ship “Waipa,” in 1879, accompanied by his wife, and on the 1st of December, of the same year, Mr and Mrs Cusworth became assistant master and matron at the Caversham Industrial School. Mr Cusworth shortly afterwards removed to Cromwell, where he was engaged in gold mining till April, 1883. He then settled in Invercargill, where, after being employed for some years in farming and bacon-curing, he opened a fruit shop in Tay Street, and carried on business for nine years. On the opening of Lorne Farm, Mr. Cusworth was selected out of fifty-three applicants for the position of master of the institution. As an Oddfellow, he has been a member of the Pioneer Lodge, since 1888, was elected trustee in 1893, and has passed all the chairs. He has twice held office as District Deputy, and was representative of the Grand Lodge at Temuka. Mr Cusworth was married, in 1874, to a daughter of the late Mr William Brown, of Invercargill, and has one son, who is a music teacher in Invercargill.
Finlayson, Kenneth , Farmer, “Auchtertyre,” Lorne. Mr Finlayson was born at Shoalhaven, New South Wales, and came to New Zealand at an early age with his father. He was educated at Invercargill and Wallacetown, and has farmed on his own account since 1878. In 1903, Mr Finlayson was chairman of the Makarewa branch of the Farmers' Union. He was married, in 1895, to a daughter of the late Mr. Kenneth McKenzie, of Myross Bush, and has five daughters and one son.
Russell, Robert , Farmer and Stockdealer, Lorne. Mr Russell farms twenty-five acres of freehold on the North Road, also 100 acres leased from the adjoining estate of his late father; and, in addition to these holdings, he has 300 acres of freehold at Makarewa. He engages in mixed farming, and is well known throughout Southland as a large dealer in stock; and he has recently formed a herd of purebred Shorthorns. Mr Russell was born in 1871, in Invercargill, and educated at Fortrose and Waianiwa. His father, the late Mr. John Russell, was considered the best judge of horses in Southland, and he was himself a noted breeder. The progeny of the horses he imported are well known throughout the Middle Island, and he often acted as a judge at the principal shows, from Invercargill to Christchurch. In 1904, Mr Robert Russell commenced farming on his own account, and four years later bought his land at Makarewa. As a volunteer, Mr Russell served for six years in the Southland Mounted Rifles, and rose, successively, to the ranks of sergeant-major and lieutenant. He is an energetic member of the local Agricultural and Pastoral Association, and has for nine years acted as steward in the roadster classes. Mr Russell has been twice married; in 1893, to Miss Utting, of Waianiwa, who died on the 2nd of October, 1898, leaving two sons and one daughter; and in 1898, to Miss Wilson, of Owaka, who has borne him three daughters.
Mr Kenneth Finlayson , One Of The Pioneer Settlers Of The Lorne District, Built His Homestead And Entered Into Occupation Of His Land In 1860. He Was Born, In 1800, At “Auchtertyre,” Ross-Shire, Scotland, But Left Home For The Colonies In 1837. He Sailed For New South Wales In A Small Vessel Of Three Hundred Tons, Which, page 917 However, Carried, 360 Passengers. Mr Finlaysen Subsequently Came To New Zealand On Account Of His Health, And Took Up Land At Lorne. He Was Married, in 1836, to a daughter of the late Mr Murdo McRae, of Allta-na-Suth, Ross-shire, Scotland, and at his death left three sons and three daughters.

27. Mavor’s {1962 – Doig}

possibly relating to the father and son partnership, Colin and Stefan Mavor, operating Braemorn  Farm, Airedale, near Oamaru, as it exists now and possibly in the family for generations.
A number of distinct beds of diatomaceous earth have been identified in the stratigraphic column (Doig, 1967).
The bed has been allocated a ‘zone’ based on the predominant genus found in the bed.
The table below (from Doig, 1967) enumerates the beds, as known at that juncture. (see notes on Arthur John Doig in Section C).

Location Name:  Mavor’s Farm

Acronym/Bed

Old Name

Zone

Notes

MF/1

-

Coscinodiscus

MF/3

Mavor’s Upper

Coscinodiscus

MF/4

Mavor’s Lower

Coscinodiscus

28. Middlemarch (South west of Oamaru)

From - Wises Index to Every Place in NZ, 1912

MIDDLEMARCH, Otago Central railway. 49 m N.W. by rail from Dunedin. Farming district. Near Taieri River. Hare, pigeon, duck, and rabbit shooting and trout fishing. Very good cycling road. Two hotels, no private board. Post, telegraph, and money order office. Named by Mrs Humphries, wife of surveyor of site, after Geo. Eliot's novel "Middlemarch." then just published. Doctor here. The Salvation Army have a Children's Institute here, and the Rock and Pillar Sanatorium for consumptives is near here.

Freshwater volcanic crater lake bed deposits!
S:45°30'35'' E:170°7'31''

29. Old Stone Quarry (Synonymous with Breen’s [Farm] and Capsize Stone Quarry)

30. Papakaio [Papakaiyo] (Synonymous with Big Flume Creek, Borrie’s [Farm], Flume Creek, Flume Gully, Frew’s [Gully], Hurst’s [Farm] and possibly Kent Knole) {1889 – Tempere et Peragallo, Meakin Collection – Samples 920, 921, 995, 1174, 1226}

From - Wises Index to Every Place in NZ, 1912

PAPAKAIO, Otago. 84 miles north by rail from Dunedin and 10 miles from Oamaru ; in Waitaki County. A mining and farming district. Post and teleph; good cycling roads all round. Dr. at Oamaru, 10 m.

Possibly currently being mined – as Taylor’s Quarry
On the Georgetown-Pukeuri Road

Papakaio (the place where food is sought and eaten) was so called for the spring where large, succulent tuna (eels).were caught and cooked in umu (ovens). This was a camp site for travelling Maori, and the traditional river crossing place.

S:44°59'21'' E:170°58'48''

30a. Lower Papakaio

Tuatara: Volume 26, Issue 1, September 1982
A Method for Cleaning Diatom Samples and the Preparation of Select and Strewn Mounts
By Stuart R. Stidolph
P.O. Box 1021, Levin, New Zealand

Oamaru earths may be divided into two groups, the siliceous and the calcareous. The older siliceous deposits, represented by Cormack, Allan's, Bairns [sic] and Lower Papakaio, underlie layers of volcanic rock, and contain little or no lime. The slightly more recent calcareous deposits, represented by Jacksons, William's Bluff, Troublesome Gully, Totara and Upper Papakaio, underlie deposits of limestone and contain lime in the form of shell fragments and foramenifera.

30b. Upper Papakaio

Tuatara: Volume 26, Issue 1, September 1982
A Method for Cleaning Diatom Samples and the Preparation of Select and Strewn Mounts
By Stuart R. Stidolph
P.O. Box 1021, Levin, New Zealand

Oamaru earths may be divided into two groups, the siliceous and the calcareous. The older siliceous deposits, represented by Cormack, Allan's, Bairns [sic] and Lower Papakaio, underlie layers of volcanic rock, and contain little or no lime. The slightly more recent calcareous deposits, represented by Jacksons, William's Bluff, Troublesome Gully, Totara and Upper Papakaio, underlie deposits of limestone and contain lime in the form of shell fragments and foramenifera.

31. Puriri ??? Is this in the North Island (as per below)

From - Wises Index to Every Place in NZ, 1912

PURIRI, Auckland. Nine miles south by rail daily from Thames ; in Thames County; near Kirikiri. Has post and telephone office, and is a mining locality and a sheep district; and is celebrated for its soda springs—Puriri water. Place named from the puriri tree. Deer stalking and game shooting. Within 1 m of Thames River Nearest doctor at Thames, 9 m.

Need to check samples – FM or FFW

Wanganui Chronicle

Turakina bush gets back original name
Merania Karauria | 12th April 2011
 A 60ha bush on the Turakina River in the Turakina Valley will once again be known by its original name.
Puriri was the name given to the bush by the tangatawhenua of Kaungaroa at Matatea Pa on the Whangaehu River, but it was renamed Sutherland's Bush.
On Saturday the 60ha bush and the surrounding area on the Turakina River was given back its original name and it is now to be known dually as Sutherland's/Puriri.
It was always known as Puriri by George Matthews and his cousins Stanley and Rangihawinui Hiroti, who were brought up at Kaungaroa, east of Wanganui, and who welcomed a group of Rangitikei Forest and Bird members to the small celebration.
Mr Hiroti blew a conch to Nga Hau e Wha and to Tane before he led the group into the bush to food pits, where once again the sombre resonance of the conch rang out through the ngahere (forest).
Twenty minutes' walk into Puriri Bush, there are five enormous food storage pits high on a hill overlooking the Mangahoe and Turakina Streams.
Mr Mathews described how his ancestors grew kumara and potatoes on the flats in the area, and stored any excess food in the pits.
Alisdair Macleay, who farms just downstream from Sutherland's, said that his grandfather spoke of lots of puriri trees on the flats in the area when they cleared the bush on the property for farming.
He said the puriri trees in the area had all been cleared.
Mr MacLeay's grandfather called the farm Puriri and a carved sign beckons with the name from the gate today.

If the sample is Oamaru then I think this is a mis-reading of Pukeuri

New Zealand Place Names Database
Place Name Detail: Pukeuri
District: Otago
Description: LOCALITY: Defined area of low or nil population
Lat: -45.0340
Long: 171.0218
NZMG Easting: 2354084.6
NZMG Northing: 5573159.2
NZMS 260 sheet: J41

Possibly exposure along the line of the stream.

From - Wises Index to Every Place in NZ, 1912

PUKEURI JUNCTION, Otago. Six miles north by rail from Oamaru; in Waitaki County. Post, telegraph, and money order office. Is a railway junction: has good level roads, and is settled by farmers. The name "Pukeuri " means "Roaring water." Nearest doctor at Oamaru. 6 m.

32. Railway Cutting….? (Probably Cormack’s Siding or Cormack’s Extension)

33. Rocky Creek (Synonymous with Rocky Stream) {Forrester}

34. Rocky Stream (Synonymous with Rocky Creek) {1967 – Doig}

e.g “Samples collected from a southern Exposure, Rocky Stream, Oamaru, New Zealand – A. J. Doig”
45° 07' S, 170° 58' E

Doig (1967 records exposures:

Rocky Stream North – Grid. Ref. 504:733
Rocky Stream South – Grid Ref. 506:729
And a further exposure recorded by Edwards @ Grid Ref. 503:722

35. Stephenson’s Farm (nr. Weston)

36. Table Top Hill {1967 – Doig}

On the Relation of the Oamaru Limestone and Waitaki Stone.
By Professor James Park, F.G.S., F.N.Z.Inst., Dean of the Faculty of Mining at Otago University.
1921/23

 “Among other places I revisited this year was the high ground overlooking Windsor Junction. From this elevation the Oamaru stone, escarpment behind Cormack's is seen to approach Enfield, whence with its cover of Kakanui limestone it sweeps northward to Teaneraki Cliffs and. beyond this to Table-top Hill. The escarpment now trends north-west in the direction of Big Hill, giving the impression as viewed in perspective that the Oamaru stone forms the cap of Big Hill itself and of the scarp-bounded mesas lying between Big Hill and Ngapara.”

New Zealand Place Names Database
Place Name Detail: Table Top Hill
District: Otago
Description: HILL: A natural elevation of the Earth's surface
Lat: -45.0162
Long: 170.9544
NZMG Easting: 2348726.1
NZMG Northing: 5575016.9
NZMS 260 sheet: J41

To the North of Brockmans Road.
?Table-top hill on Waitio Station, Makuri-Coonoor Road?
On the landholding of Mr. R. Fox in 1967.

36a. Table Top Lower

Stephanopyxis zone {Doig 1967}

36b. Table Top Upper

Coscinodiscus zone {Doig 1967}

37. Taylor’s Quarry (Taylor’s Lime Works) {1888 – Lautour}

The Oamaru Diatomite is present locally below the limestone at the Taylors Quarry access road, and more extensively to the south.

“As a community that suffered badly in the depression of the 1930’s there is no better example of the consequences of resource development in the Waiareka Valley than what occurred in the 1950’s. The Taylor family, who began extracting and selling agricultural lime, had their faith justified with the improved prosperity of the times. The demand developed to where there were more than 50 employees required on an ongoing basis. The Taylor family contributed more to the wealth of the Waiareka Valley than they will ever know.”

Taylors Quarry - Eo/Oligocene boundary sequence with Oamaru Diatomite and Ototara Limestone
Taylor's Limeworks are about 200 yards west of Cormack's siding, and Cormack's Extension is 200 yards north of the limeworks.
A number of distinct beds of diatomaceous earth have been identified in the stratigraphic column (Doig, 1967).
The bed has been allocated a ‘zone’ based on the predominant genus found in the bed.
The table below (from Doig, 1967) enumerates the beds, as known at that juncture. (see notes on Arthur John Doig in Section C).

Location Name:  Taylor’s Quarry

Acronym

Sequence Name

Beds exposed

Notes

CD

Dragline and Quarry

CD1-CD8

CE

Cormack’s Extension and Watertank

CE1-CE5

CS

Cormack’s Siding

CS1

Acronym/Bed

Old Name

Zone

Notes

CD/8

Base of Dragline

Melosira

CE/3

Base of Watertank

Stephanopyxis

CE/5

Cormack’s Extension

Stephanopyxis

CS/1

Cormack’s Siding

Stephanopyxis

38. Te Aneraki Escarpment {Forrester}

From - Wises Index to Every Place in NZ, 1912

TE ANERAKI. See Enfield

ENFIELD, Otago. 81 miles north by rail from Dunedin and seven from Oamaru; in Waitaki County. Farming settlement. Good roads. Private board. A deposit of dolerite has recently been unearthed here. Post and telephone office with daily mail. Doctor at Oamaru. 8 m. Store and dairy factory.

39. Totara {1889 – Tempere et Peragallo, 1915 - Diatomees du Monde Entier - Tempere et Peragallo, Meakin Collection – Sample 588 (ex-Leonard via Dr.Albert Mann), 851, 1359}

There are many Totara locations that, in all likelihood, do not have anything to do with the diatomite outcrops. This is probably the case with the location Totaratahi below. This is normally shortened to Totara.
An example of this is a Totara in the vicinity of Fortification Hill as per the following newspaper cutting.


North Otago Times, Volume XXVII, Issue 2008, 11 October 1878

It is believed that the Totara material is sourced from a location next to Bain’s and indeed some references, by way of confirmation, state “Bain’s Totara”. See Bain’s.

From - Wises Index to Every Place in NZ, 1912

TOTARA, Otago. A railway station on Dunedin 0amaru line. Totara is short for Totaratahi.

TOTARATAHI, Otago. Six miles by rail from Oamaru and three miles from the coast. A farming locality. Wild ducks and rabbits. "Totara" means "tree," and " Tahi" "one." Only one tree on the Totara estate. Post and, teleph office. Dr at Oamaru, 6 m.

Def: Totara:

The forest tree podocarpus. (def: 1936)

Podocarpus totara (tōtara) is a species of podocarp tree endemic to New Zealand. It grows throughout the North Island and northeastern South Island in lowland, montane and lower subalpine forest at elevations of up to 600 m. Prized for its carving properties it was the primary wood used in Māori carving.

Close to Bain's, in the middle of a field under a large boulder lies a collecting site known as Totara (also Ototara)

New Zealand Historic Places Trust
19 DRD Oamaru 8901
The site of Totara Estate is of national importance as the origin of the frozen meat industry in New Zealand.
The first shipment of frozen meat was organized, killed and dressed in the sheds at Totara, then transported to the nearby railway siding, where it was taken by rail to Dunedin in Ice packed carriages. At Port Chalmers it was loaded into hold of the sailing ship Dunedin of the Albion Shipping Line, where it was then frozen before being shipped to Britain. This took place in February 1882. The success of this initial shipment formed the basis of New Zealand's meat industry and overseas markets.
Today the history of the New Zealand Meat Freezing Industry, which has become one New Zealand's main export earners, can be seen here at Totara. The collection of fascinating antique farming equipment and other relics are housed within the four farm buildings, which are all are built of Oamaru Stone, three date of which from mid-1860s. The carcass shed was built in 1881. The Men’s Quarters and Cookhouse, are set up as they would have been, the main building has a comprehensive museum relating to pioneer farming development and the venture into the frozen meat trade.
Hours of opening
WEDNESDAYS TO SUNDAYS 10 am to 4pm, plus public holidays (except Christmas Day) and for tours, any time by arrangement. (Dec - Feb open DAILY).
Admission
Tour Prices: Adults $15 - Children $5 - Family $40
Guided Tours available
Postal Address
Lesley Whitteker.
Property Manager,
Totara Estate/Clark's Mill,
N.Z. Historic Places Trust/Pouhere Taonga,
19 D.R.D.,
Oamaru.
Phone/Fax 03 434 7169
EMail: totaraestate@historic.org.nz

New Zealand Place Names Database
Place Name Detail: Totara
District: Otago
Description: LOCALITY: Defined area of low or nil population
Lat: -45.1400
Long: 170.8716
NZMG Easting: 2342553.5
NZMG Northing: 5561097.7
NZMS 260 sheet: J41

45° 6' 7.80" S  170° 53' 20.78" E 

40. Troublesome Gully {1889 – Tempere et Peragallo, 1915 - Diatomees du Monde Entier - Tempere et Peragallo, Meakin Collection – Samples 733, 734, 1360}

Troublesome Gully is on the Ross Mitchell property at Weston.

REPORT ON THE INFORMATION PROVIDED TO SUPPORT A PROPOSED CEMENT PLANT AND ASSOCIATED QUARRIES NEAR OAMARU

KAI TAHU KI OTAGO LIMITED (MARCH 2007)
Surveys undertaken October and September 2006. Troublesome Gully contains exotic species. There is a small amount of native vegetation located on the escarpment just above the gully. There is limited native vegetation at Ngapara; however, two small wetland areas were found containing remnant indigenous vegetation. Native vegetation located on the escarpment above Troublesome Gully will be removed; this requires resource consent from the Waitaki District Council. It is proposed that native vegetation along the main escarpment at Weston will be protected. Gullies within Ngapara will be heavily modified. While they contain indigenous species, these are common species and are already modified. There are 3 ‘rock art’ sites located in Troublesome Gully.

A number of distinct beds of diatomaceous earth have been identified in the stratigraphic column (Doig, 1967).
The bed has been allocated a ‘zone’ based on the predominant genus found in the bed.
The table below (from Doig, 1967) enumerates the beds, as known at that juncture. (see notes on Arthur John Doig in Section C).

Location Name:  Troublesome Gully

Acronym/Bed

Old Name

Zone

Notes

TG/1

Troublesome Gully

Coscinodiscus

TG/2

Troublesome Gully

Coscinodiscus

41. Waiareki Valley (below Jackson’s) {1888 – Lautour}

From - Wises Index to Every Place in NZ, 1912

WAIAREKA. See Weston.

WAIAREKA JUNCTION, Otago. Railway siding and junction with post office two miles from Oamaru. Nearest telegraph office Oamaru. A rich discovery in the form of granite has recently been unearthed here. Dr. at Oamaru.
WESTON, Otago. Mixed farming district and township, four miles W. from Oamaru by rail; in Waitaki County. Post and telephone office. Quarries of the noted Oamaru stone are here. Two stores and dairy factory in the township. Is bounded by the Awamoa Creek, and the Waiareka Creek passes near. Dr. at Oamaru, 4 m.
WAITAKI. A railway station on the Waitaki River 13 miles north-east from Oamaru. Duck and hare shooting and trout fishing. Name means " Running water." Post office. Nearest telegraph office is Glenavy, 1 ½ m distant. One hotel. Dr. at Oamaru.

42. Whitstone Escarpment (Synonymous with Lorne Escarpment, William’s Bluff)

From - Wises Index to Every Place in NZ, 1912

WHITSTONE. Six miles from Oamaru; in Waitaki County. Rail to Weston, thence two miles. Farming district. Nearest telegraph office Enfield, one and a-quarter miles. Post office.

S:45°3'41'' E:170°53'7''

43. William’s Bluff (Synonymous with Lorne Escarpment, Whitstone Escarpment) {1887 – Hutton, 1915 - Diatomees du Monde Entier - Tempere et Peragallo, Meakin Collection – Samples 593-596 (ex-Tempere)}

Exposures at the cliff top.
A number of distinct beds of diatomaceous earth have been identified in the stratigraphic column (Doig, 1967).
The bed has been allocated a ‘zone’ based on the predominant genus found in the bed.
The table below (from Doig, 1967) enumerates the beds, as known at that juncture. (see notes on Arthur John Doig in Section C).

Location Name:  William’s Bluff

Acronym/Bed

Old Name

Zone

Notes

WB/1

William’s Bluff

Coscinodiscus

Diatomaceae more frequent in upper layers.


Summary of Locations:

1. Allan's Farm, Oamaru {1889 – Lautour}

1a. Allen’s Farm (Synonymous with Allan’s Farm)
1b. Allan’s Rock {John A. Schulze Collection – 469, 471, 472, 476}

2. Atkinson’s Farm

3. Bain’s (Farm) {1887 – Hutton, 1889 – Lautour, 1889 - Tempere et Peragallo}

Records also exist relating to Bain’s Top (is this synonymous with Bain’s Upper?)
3a. Bain’s Upper
3b. Bain’s Middle
3c. Bain’s Lower
Records also exist relating to Bain’s Totara.

4. Big Flume Creek (Synonymous with Borrie’s [Farm], Flume Creek, Flume Gully, Frew’s [Gully], Hurst’s [Farm], Papakaio)

5. Bill’s Bluff (Synonymous with William’s Bluff) {Arthur J. Doig}

6. Borries (Borrie’s Farm) (Synonymous with Big Flume Creek, Borrie’s [Farm], Flume Creek, Flume Gully, Frew’s [Gully], Hurst’s [Farm], Papakaio) {1889 – Tempere et Peragallo}

7. Breen’s (Farm)

8. Capsize Stone Quarry (appears to be synonymous with Breen’s Farm and Old Stone Quarry) {1918 – Park}

8a. Cape Size {CAS Diatom Collection Acc. No. 612443 - York T. Mandra}

9. Cave Valley (possibly the same as Cormack’s) {1874 – H. R. Webb, 1886, 1888 - Lautour}

10. Cormack’s (Cormacks) {Meakin Collection – Sample 735 S.W. Corner, 1153, 1154}

10a. Cormack’s Crossing {Arthur J. Doig}
10b. Cormack’s Extension {1877 – McKay}
10c. Cormack’s Farm
10d. Cormack’s Siding {1874 – H. R. Webb, 1877 – McKay, 1888 – Forrester}
10e. Cormack’s Top {1877 – McKay}

11. Daniels….? (Cormack’s?)

12. Devil’s Bridge (Synonymous with Mavor’s)

13. Dick’s Farm

14. Division Hill

15. Flaws Creek (East Oamaru)

16. Flume Creek (Synonymous with Big Flume Creek, Borrie’s [Farm], Flume Gully, Frew’s [Gully], Hurst’s [Farm], Papakaio) {1889 – Tempere et Peragallo}

17. Flume Gully (Synonymous with Big Flume Creek, Borrie’s [Farm], Flume Creek, Frew’s [Gully], Hurst’s [Farm], Papakaio) {1889 – Tempere et Peragallo}

18. Forrester’s

18a. Forrester's Hill, Oamaru {Meakin Collection – Sample 1190, 1191, 1193, 1194, 1195}
18b. Forrester's Rock (Synonymous with Forrester’s Hill – or is it) {1915 - Diatomees du Monde Entier – Tempere et Peragallo, Meakin Collection – Sample 490 (ex-Tempere)}
            – or since this wasn’t found could this be the Totara stone?

19. Fortification Hill

20. Foulden Hills, Otago (Foulden Hills Diatomite, not far from Dunedin, New Zealand. – near Middlemarch so probably Freshwater Crater Lake material)

21. Frew’s (Gully) (possibly synonymous with Big Flume Creek, Borrie’s [Farm], Flume Creek, Flume Gully, Frew’s [Gully], Hurst’s [Farm], Papakaio){1889 – Tempere et Peragallo}

22. Hurst’s (Farm) (Synonymous with Big Flume Creek, Borrie’s [Farm], Flume Creek, Flume Gully, Frew’s [Gully], Papakaio and possibly Kent Knole) {1889 – Tempere et Peragallo}

23. Jackson’s {1888 – Lautour, Meakin Collection – Sample 1227, 1362, 1379}

23a. Jackson’s Farm {Dr. Watt – Brigger Collection bottle 650}
23b. Jackson’s Paddock {188? – Mr. C. Gifford of Waitaki Boys High School, 1888 – Forrester, 1888 – Lautour, 1915 - Diatomees du Monde Entier - Tempere et Peragallo, Meakin Collection – Sample 508-511 (ex-Tempere), 849, 1117}
23c. Jackson’s Rock {John A. Schulze Collection – 493}
23d. Jackson’s Top {Dr. Watt – Brigger Collection bottles 201, 204, and 205}
23e. Jackson’s Well {Brigger Collection – bottle 32}

24. Kakanui

25. Kent Knole (Synonymous with Hurst’s Farm and probably Papakaio) {1957 – Gage, 1965 – Turner}

26. Lorne Escarpment (Synonymous with William’s Bluff, Whitstone Escarpment, Bill’s Bluff)

27. Mavor’s (possibly relating to the father and son partnership, Colin and Stefan Mavor, operating Braemorn Farm, Airedale, near Oamaru. i.e. Mavor’s) {1962 – Doig}

28. Middlemarch (South west of Oamaru) (Freshwater Volcanic Crater Lake material)

29. Old Stone Quarry (Synonymous with Breen’s Farm and Capsize Stone Quarry)

30. Papakaio [Papakaiyo] (Synonymous with Big Flume Creek, Borrie’s [Farm], Flume Creek, Flume Gully, Frew’s [Gully], possibly Hurst’s [Farm]) {1889 – Tempere et Peragallo, Meakin Collection –  Sample 920, 921, 995, 1174, 1226}

30a. Lower Papakaio
30b. Upper Papakaio

31. Puriri ??? (Puriri is in the north island – if the sample is Oamaru then I think this is a mis-reading of Pukeuri)

32. Railway Cutting….? (probably Cormack’s siding)

33. Rocky Creek (Synonymous with Rocky Stream) {Forrester}

34. Rocky Stream (Synonymous with Rocky Creek) {1967 – Doig}

35. Stephenson’s Farm (nr. Weston)

36. Table Top Hill {1967 – Doig}

36a. Table Top Lower
36b. Table Top Upper

37. Taylor’s Quarry (Taylor’s Lime Works) {1888 – Lautour}

38. Te Aneraki Escarpment {Forrester}

39. Totara {1889 – Tempere et Peragallo, 1915 - Diatomees du Monde Entier - Tempere et Peragallo, Meakin Collection – Sample 588 (ex-Leonard via Dr.Albert Mann), 851, 1359}

                See Bain’s Totara.

40. Troublesome Gully {1889 – Tempere et Peragallo, 1915 - Diatomees du Monde Entier - Tempere et Peragallo, Meakin Collection – Samples 733, 734, 1360}

41. Waiareki Valley (below Jackson’s) {1888 – Lautour}

42. Whitstone Escarpment (Synoymous with Lorne Escarpment, William’s Bluff, Bill’s Bluff)

43. Williams’ Bluff (Synonymous with Lorne Escarpment, Whitstone Escarpment, Bill’s Bluff) {1887 – Hutton}


Harry de Lautour (On the Fossil Marine Diatomaceous Deposit near Oamaru
Read before the Otago Institute 12th June 1888)
"Map of Oamaru and district, showing the diatom outcrops or faces at Cormack's siding, Jackson's, Bain's, and Allen's farms. The dotted lines show the area of diatomaceous deposit as mapped out by Mr. Isdaile. Diatom earth has also been ploughed up in Cave Valley and on the east side of the Waiareka Creek. None has, however, yet been found on the west side of the creek, nor on the hills near Totara Round Hill. A small deposit occurs just where the road crosses the railway-bridge to Enfield, but it is of no importance, and is much mixed up with the calcareous débris of the disintegrated limestone."


Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand
Art. VIII.—Geology of the Oamara-Papakaio District.
By G. H. Uttley, M.A., M.Sc., F.G.S., Principal, Scots College, Wellington.
[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 19th September, 1917, received by Editors, 31st December, 1917; issued separately, 24th May, 1918.]

(Note: On this map – is Water Race Creek another name for Flume Creek/Gully? Or is Flume Creek where ‘Oamaru Borough Water-race is marked?)

Go to Top of Page
Diatoms in Colour 
Spike Walker's Diatoms in Colour Gallery
All images © M. I. Walker 2013

Spike Walker has generously given us permission to use even more of his quite exquisite images.
We are careful to ask for such during the euphoria of our occasional 'get togethers'. Spike has always been most accommodating in allowing us the use of his material and once again we thank him wholeheartedly.....again.


Aulacodiscus formosus


Podocystis spathulata


Triceratium favus

Go to Top of Page
Field Microscopes X 
The Diagnostic by C. Baker



Inset - from The Illustrated Annual of Microscopy 1900.

This incredibly robust, yet compact, stand utilises standard RMS thread objectives, standard eyepieces and has a tube length range similar to bench top microscopes.
As such it is ideally suited to the outwardbound diatomist.





As can be seen in the catalogue entry above the stand was originally designed to enable workers in the field to diagnose Malaria.
The requirement for such microscopes by medical workers has today been superseded by the advent of chemical based diagnosis kits.

The Surgeon-Major Ronald Ross mentioned in the catalogue entry is, of course, Sir Ronald Ross. The following Biography of Sir Ronald Ross is courtesy of London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (click the logo below to be directed to their web site where significant other detail is to be found).



Sir Ronald Ross was born in India in 1857 to a Scottish Army Officer and his wife. He was educated in England and entered St Bartholomew's Hospital Medical College in 1874. He took the examinations for the Royal College of Surgeons of England in 1879 and obtained the post of ship's surgeon while studying for the Licenciate of the Society of Apothecaries, which allowed him to enter the Indian Medical Service in 1881. He held temporary appointments in Madras, Burma and Andaman Islands, all the while developing his interests in poetry, literature and mathematics. In 1892 he began his study of malaria and in 1895 began his correspondence with Sir Patrick Manson, then physician to the Seamen's Hospital Society, who became the Medical Advisor to the Colonial Office and the founder of the London School of Tropical Medicine.
In August 1897, he made his famous discovery of the transmission of malaria parasites in man by Anopheles mosquitoes, after which he continued his research work in India until 1899 when he retired from the Indian Medical Service. He returned to England, taking a post as lecturer at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, later becoming Professor of Tropical Medicine, and accepting a personal chair in Tropical Sanitation at Liverpool University. During World War One he was appointed a consultant physician on tropical diseases to Indian troops and was sent to Alexandria for four months to investigate an outbreak of dysentery which was hampering troops in the Dardanelles. In 1917 he was appointed a consultant physician to the War Office and in 1919 he received an honorary post as consultant to the Ministry of Pensions.
During his life he went on various expeditions, including West Africa, Panama, Greece and Cyprus to advise on and aid the extermination of malaria. He wrote extensively on malaria and other topics including his book The Prevention of Malaria in 1910. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1902 and knighted in 1911. Despite receiving many other awards and honours during his life, he felt embittered that he did not receive monetary reward for his discovery* and petitioned the Government on this subject. This was part of his concern that research workers should receive proper payment and pensions for their work. He was Director-in-Chief of the Ross Institute and Hospital for Tropical Diseases from 1926 until his death in 1932.


*At his death on the 16th September 1932 his estate was valued at only £7,403 4s.



The magnitude of the discovery of the malarial parasite is stated in the following extract.


Extract from The Times Thursday, September 28th 1899

Go to Top of Page
Extracts from a Diatomists' Notebook (I) 
Dr. Michael Vaughn Salmon (Laboratory Notebook II)



Go to Top of Page
Diatom Locomotion explained? 
Over many, many years much has been written (and speculated) concerning the movement of diatoms and their means of locomotion.
On pondering the various modern explanations our resident cartoonist thought there might be alternative explanations.


Asteromphalus and Cymatopleura


Achnanthes and Podocystis


Campylodiscus and Cocconeis


Cymbella, Epithemia and Licmophora


Amphicampa and Didymosphaenia


Pleurosigma and Tabellaria


Podocystis and Omphalopsis


Ceratoneis, Actinocyclus and Cymbella


Chaetoceros


Rhipidophora, Terpsinoe and Bacteriastrum

Go to Top of Page